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Personality Psychology

Differences among individuals in a society arise due to one’s possession of different traits (Biswas-Diener et al, 108). These traits can be used to define an individual and even to predict the patterns of their behavior in a certain situation. This concept is crucial in managing human right from the family, the school setup, organization, community or any other institution in the society. Understanding approaches and dimensions of human personality in a psychological perspective can play a considerable role in managing life issues, such as conflicts, identity and developmental crisis, individual differences, and psychological disorders. This will be a considerable boost in enhancing harmony in the society. Common conflict that can be easily solved through sound knowledge in personality psychology, in the contemporary world include adolescent crisis, conflicts of interest in the work places, relationship matters, and stereotypes ideations.

In the science of judging others and evaluating personality traits of other individuals, human being relays on data to support their argument. Funder (2010), classified these data into more approachable categories in comparison with the general primary and secondary data. The first category expresses the individual feelings and shows the way how a person can describe, judge or express their traits. A more common explanation of this form of data is in the job market during interviews. Individuals are provoked to explain or describe themselves from their personal point of view. For instances, people will use examples such as I am Self-directed, hardworking, and a self-motivated person. This illustrates their own analysis of what the they consider being their strong traits in relation to the jobs opportunity. 

The second approach of data used in analyzing personality psychology according to Funder (2010) is informant. Employers will use referees in determining the authenticity and credibility of the applicants during job recruitment. Referees describe the traits of the individual in question from their own perspective or providing their own understanding. This is a link in the psychology supporting the influence of the types of behavior by personal traits. It is through these types that individuals traits are identified; thus, the personality of the individual becomes clearly identified. Informant data differs from the behavioral data in the sense that behavioral will be benched on a number of evaluators, not necessary involving long time exposure with the subject.  Finally, the last category is that of life events that take place in the organization. Such description includes a winner in a competition, married, circumcised and injured person among others. These may not necessarily attribute to personal traits, but they describe the qualities in their lives. In such cases, psychologist will be able to judge behavior of and individual which may be as an influence of life events. Correct analysis of an individual involves a complete analysis of the four data categories.

In improving the study in personality psychology, research has to target areas of need. The core areas of research results, which enhance advancement, are reliability, validity and generalizability (Funder, 2010). These aspects of a good research study cannot be achieved without a well-outlines study approach. There must be a consistent concern of craving to understand the unknown and to explore the subject deeper considering all facts and reasons. Study that aims at explaining the existing information and phenomena in the society may not improve the discipline. Therefore, the current phenomena and explanation personality psychology should not be deemed perfect but rather a platform for further exploration.  For instance, the cases of racism in the society are a psychological aspect that should be investigated. Racism has currently emerged as a crucial factor, especially in the field of football games. It concerns the recent cases where English Premier League federation has launched a campaign to abolish and fight racism in football. Psychological factors, contributing to such behaviors, should evoke a need for scientific research.

Description of human behavior may take more than one approach. According to Mishalski and Shackelford ( 2010), the differences among individual are the influence made by both inherent and acquired attributes. The genetic composition of an individual plays a role in propagating traits from one generation to the other. Kids will possess qualities that are evidenced in their parents. For instance, parents who are obese passes the genes that regulate the metabolism of carbohydrate will be passed on to their kids, thus developing the habit of overeating.  Parents who are alcoholic are believed to transmit the alcoholic gene to their kids. Such children will grow up being alcoholic. On the other hand, nurture has significant impact on the individual’s traits of the development. For instance, rebuttals of inherent theory of traits development argues that traits are acquired and forgod as the individual mingle and socialize with other individuals. Evaluation of these two approaches has been widely researched on for a long duration. Thus, environment seems to hold more weight in explaining traits of the development. In support of these, twins brought up in different environmental exposure portray different traits. 

This is also in line with the argument that personality is determined by traits. Environmental model of trait development incorporates trait, learning and psychoanalytic theories in explaining personality psychology. Psychological attributes such as moods, goals, feeling and attitude also impact significantly on the personality psychology (Biswas-Diene, et al 2011). The argument benched on the situationist theorists holds that individuals’ personalities changes from one situation to another. Depending on the environment that the individual is exposed to, the personality differs. Situationist rebuke existence of consistent traits over different environment means that occasionally situation determines personality. They argue that people will possess different characteristics, deemed to help them adapt to the demands of the situation. This claim can be disputed concerning the fact that traits have to be consistent, persistent over time and place. Intermittent behaviors that person adopts to help them cope with their environment cannot be totally relied on to define the personality of an individual.

Personality test can either be projective or objective. The main types of data targeted in personality test are the self-subjected and behavioral data.  In the contemporary world, both tests have been employed in determining the consistency of traits in a given society (Michalski, R. & Shackelford, 2010).  Application of the two tests in the real life depends on the situation that is being evaluated. However, it should be noted that the test can influence individuals either negatively or positively.  The variation in the interpretation of personality trait is affected by the judgment and the accuracy of the test. It means parallel test should be conducted and the result is to be evaluated for validity and reliability. An individual’s trait and personality can be inferred from the organization, surrounding his or her environment (Biswas-Diener et al, 2011). Currently, the use of the information and knowledge in psychology has enabled individuals to make inferences about individual personality, depending on the song genre that they listen to, clothing, food type and tone used in communication. However, the judgment is more subjective  than objective. For instance, men who like watching romantic movies are liked with women; excessive attachment to reggae music is associated with bhang use while dressing in sex provoking manner is associated with prostitution.

Application of traits testing among individuals has been employed in a variety of evaluation strategies in the society. For instance, the science behind performance appraisal, in the work place, analyses a given set of organization standards in measurement of performance.  The testing personality along one trait may evoke doubts since individuals are different. However, this is an imperative approach in determining the consistency of a trait in the society. Individuals are ranked along the continuum of the trait under evaluation.

The influence of the brain and mind on the personal psychology cannot be overlooked. The physiology of the brain and the chemical modulation of the functioning of the brain has an impact on an individual’s personality. For instance, psychological disorders arise due to abnormalities in the concentration, chemical variation or interferences of the main chemical found in the brain cells. Depending on which chemical is dominant in the brain cells, different psychological attributes are manifested (Biswas-Diener et al, 2011). For instance, serotonin and norepinephrine determine the individual’s emotional status. The sex hormones are also crucial in determining traits that are gender related. Therefore, brain has an incredible effect for the personality. 

In conclusion, personality is a result of the interplay of a number of personality psychologies. These factors affect the individual personality either in combination or supplementing each other, depending on  the situation. Inheritance, physiology, the mind and the environmental factors are the key contributors to personality psychology. Separating them in determining their role and influence to personality psychology analysis may not lead to a conclusive set of ideas. There is no one factor among the discussed aspects that can be said to solely determine the personality. Each of the theories explaining psychology personality holds some truth.  Eliminating some and settling on other will lead to void portions tin the model that lacks scientific support. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the linkages between the theories of personality psychology and how the interplay influences traits that identify a person. Understanding personality and the factors that influence personality remain a core area in solving societal problems. 

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