Immigration to the USA
Immigration to the USA is one of the most challenging issues for policymakers and the public. Poverty, corruption, violence, and crime encourage people from poor countries to move to America in search of a better life. Low-wage workers impact its economy, bringing it both advantages and disadvantages. This paper aims to summarize research articles on the pros and cons of immigration in the modern U.S. reality.
In the article “Immigration and Economic Growth” Hanson (2012) points out that immigration is a rather controversial issue with its pros and cons. It is a well-known fact that immigrants shape the United States, and many American citizens support it because traditionally it makes a significant contribution to their economic development. However, many opponents consider that immigration threatens the U.S. economy. Hanson (2012) reports that undocumented immigration represents one-third of the American immigrants, the majority of which are Latinos (76 percent), 59 percent are from Mexico, and the rest are from other parts of Latin America. He also assumes that forecasts for the shrinking and aging of the population in developed countries predict an inevitable increase in their demand for foreign labor and provoke a hot debate over immigration issues (Hanson, 2012).
Contradictory estimates of immigration are largely determined by its own peculiarities. It is a multidimensional process that affects different components and individual parameters of economic livelihoods. Hanson (2012) points out that a migration structure has four main categories, such as economic migrants, reuniting family members, refugees, and unreported immigrants.
In their work “Fear vs. Facts: Examining the Economic Impact of Undocumented Immigrants in the U.S.,” Becerra, Androff, Ayón, and Castillo (2012) state that immigration represents the growing threat of terrorism, erosion of national identity, growth of inter-ethnic conflicts, and political extremism. The authors admit that supporters of immigration restrictions attribute to an increase in unemployment, falling wages among the indigenous population, a rise in social spending, and a slowdown in economic growth among others (Becerra et al., 2012). Admittedly, most people stand against undocumented immigrants, who are associated with illegal employment, border security, and related crimes (Becerra et al., 2012). However, they contribute a large portion of taxes that is favorable for the U.S. economy. Becerra et al. (2012) also suggest that an American attitude towards immigration changed after September 11, 2001, and the influx of immigrants began to be perceived as a threat to the country. Many Americans began to express fears that terrorists penetrate into the USA through immigration channels.
Furthermore, in “Immigration Law and Policy: Before and after September 11, 2001,” Laque (2010) argues that economic migrants have an ambiguous effect on the ratio of the working and non-working population. Labor migration is certainly a good channel for replenishment labor. Moreover, Laque (2010) reports that producing and consuming national products, paying taxes and social contributions, and making savings, immigrants have a significant impact on U.S. economic development. However, the resettlement for family reunification automatically increases the number of dependents. Such expansion and refugees often enhance the mismatch of supply and demand in the labor market. Furthermore, Lague (2010) believes that in spite of a significant number of opponents, among legislators and ordinary citizens, immigration will continue because it is traditionally an update guarantee and the influx of new forces for progressive development.
Thus, increasing the workforce and filling a special niche in the area of employment with a steady demographic decline and imbalances in the labor market, immigration plays an important socio-economic function in the United States. Definitely, as seen from the articles, it has both advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, it requires further legislation.
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