1. If Sandra have type AB- blood. Explain if Anthony with type B+ blood can donate. Why or why not?
Anthony, whose blood type is B+, cannot donate it to Sandra with her blood type being AB-. The classification of blood is made based on the existence or absence of certain antigens (A and B). As a result, eight common blood types and four major groups are distinguished. Rh factor is the third antigen in the blood, and it is the most immunogenic one. Moreover, 85% of people have erythrocytes carrying the protein, which means that this factor is present (+), while the rest 15% do not have it, so it is absent (-). It is quite important to know one’s type when the blood donation is required. When the blood types are not compatible, red blood cells make clumps that create clots and block the blood flow in the veins, which could lead to death. Therefore, such a situation will happen to Sandra if Anthony donates his B+ blood type to her. In order to avoid the incompatibility of blood for both the donor and the recipient, it is better to donate the blood of the same group that the recipient has. In case of emergency, the erythrocytes of group 0 can be donated; erythrocytes of group A can be transfused to the recipients with A and AB groups, and erythrocytes from the donor of group B can be donated to the recipients of B and AB groups.
2. Give a summary of a blood condition.
Blood can tell much about someone’s body. That is why the first important analysis that the doctor asks a patient to do is the blood analysis. Blood is a composition of different cells (commonly red and white) with certain functions. Thus, the red blood cells help carry oxygen through the body, and the white ones fight against infections and control bleeding. Thus, their functioning is important for keeping the blood and the body itself healthy. Blood disorders can greatly affect the main blood components, thus leading to such conditions as anemia, hemophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and venous thrombosis. This is all about how many other diseases can influence the whole organism. Moreover, in many cases, the symptoms of a blood condition are not obvious at first. Later, the immune system becomes the enemy of one’s body, which might cause severe pain. That is why many doctors always recommend to keep one’s blood healthy to avoid many diseases. Still, people are not protected from genetic conditions when one’s genes and place of birth can lead to blood conditions.
3.Explain in detail about ONE of the following formed element (erythrocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes). In explanation please include function, explain what happens if there is a lack of that formed element, explain what is happening if there is too much of the formed element?
Neutrophils are the most numerous group of white blood cells (leukocytes), and together with basophils and eosinophils they create the PMN family. These cells help the body fight infections by destroying pathogenic bacteria in blood and tissues. Some people call them ‘kamikaze cells’ as they meet bacteria and after destroying them, they die. Neutrophils differ from some other white blood cells as they are not bounded to a specific area of circulation and they can move freely through the veins into the tissues of one’s body. The appropriate number of neutrophils in the body is quite important to people’s health. When there is too many of them (neutrophilia) or too few (neutropenia), this could lead to serious problems. Thus, a high level of neutrophils is a sign that the body has an infection. The higher the neutrophils count is, the more severe the disease is. The disease itself has some kind of an influence on the level of neutrophils and other cells. In cases of neutropenia, there are three common reasons for low neutrophils count - too many of them have died while fighting against pathogens, the depletion of bone marrow reserves, and the mass destruction of cells as the result of blood disease. Consequently, it will be hard for the body to fight most types of serious infection. Nevertheless, for some people, such an increase is normal due to recent physical or mental stress or during pregnancy. Finally, there is one common thing – the excess or lack of the formed element affects the main function, which is fighting the infection and keeping the body healthy.
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