Religion is one of the olden forms of the spiritual culture, which has exerted a significant influence on many spheres of social life since the earliest times. One of the bright examples of the influence was the emergence of Confucianism as a state ideology, which strengthened the nationwide identity of the East Asian tradition (Yao 5). Confucianism was the foundation of the traditions of political thought and action in East Asia because it supported the political constancy in countries since they based their beliefs on strict regulations and moral values (Yao 63). Representatives of the East Asian tradition subordinate the interests of the person to the interests of the group, express the desire to avoid disagreement, admire the evolving system of cultural and chronological norms, and respect political customs of the strict hierarchical subordination of the higher and lower classes.
The History of Confucianism and Its Influence on Asian Culture
The history of Confucianism is comparable to the radiation since from its origins in the north it has extended mostly to China, and only then to other countries in East Asia. In the historical growth, Confucianism played an important role during most conflicts and wars (Yao 213). It is worth noting that, in some circumstances, the religion served as a power, the meaning of preserving and the protection order, acting as the foundation on which a new government that relied on Confucianism ideologically and directorially could easily be reborn. Therefore, Confucianism had a huge authority in the East Asian religion, politics, and tradition (Yao 66). However, the East Asian culture's distinctive feature is the incorporation of the values of the functioning supporting in the society and the vision of the following process. These beliefs have shaped the world of political affairs in the countries of East Asia. It should be noted that in many aspects the trends of the present and future actions of the Asian tradition, both at the domestic and worldwide levels, depend on communal attitudes towards politics and their role in the political organization.
The government in East Asia has always been more moral than political. Relationships of the countries were implicit almost completely which means they had no strict direction (Yao 213). In countries of East Asia, Confucian traditions and culture have always predominated. People have always had the advantages of large or small personal freedoms; however, politics as an unusual sphere of civic life, as a space for the resistance of various supporting forces are gone.
The chief role in the history of political thought and action in East Asia originated from the training of Confucius. In particular, he developed the patriarchal concept of the government which the state treated as a large family. The influence of the Emperor is similar to the power of the Father, and the relationship of the ruling and focus is family relations alike, where young people depend on the elders (Lecture Notes, 3 July 2017 4). The socio-political chain of command depends on the belief of differences of people. Confucius argued for the aristocratic concept of the state since it totally excluded average people from the contribution in the administration. The political values of Confucius intended at achieving an inner peaceful connection between the upper of the civilization and the stabilization of the rule.
Furthermore, Confucius also draws attention to the need to conquer the processes of the division of prosperity and the deficiency between people. The regulation of political relationships through the norms of virtue in the studies of Confucius piercingly contrasts with the domination of the foundation of the five main concepts law of the East Asian tradition (Yao 69). The main goal of Confucian education is to understand Heaven and the capability to develop this understanding in society, as well as in family and private life.
The Five Main Political Principles
One of the most important concepts of the East Asian tradition of political thought and action is the idea of Ren, which means benevolence and humaneness. There are two components, which reflect the views of this principle on the government structure and organization of society. First of all, Ren has rich essence and wide distribution. Secondly, Ren suggests that nation representatives have to be kind to each other. It is in the connection over the years that society has built policies on states and their events (Lecture Notes, 3 July 2017 4). It is the personification of the best moral principles and norms of men: compassion, restraint, gentleness, consideration, love for people, honesty, and naturalness.
The second traditional notion of East Asia is the belief called Yi, the major components of which are righteousness and justice. The essence of the second concept was foundation hidden in four hieroglyphs: to be faithful and honest and honor the ruler (Yao 120). The second point enclosed a whole range of problems related to the administration system, and, above all, the norms of the connection between the head of the government and bureaucracy. At variance about the difficulty of power, Confucius believed that all personal belongings should be resolved on the basis of the attitude of justice. In essence, Confucius put together such outwardly distant concepts as power and justice, basing this concept on reciprocity (Yao 2015). It is necessary to respect parents in thankfulness for the fact that they raised children (Lecture Notes, 3 July 2017 3). The idea of the second concept is common logic, wisdom, judgment, the ability to analyze the consequences of one's actions, to analyze them from the outside.
The third concept of the East Asian tradition of political thought and action known as L? defines religious rituals. In this concept, there is a thought of the correct state and the main beliefs which guide it. It should be noted, that with this concept the policy of the government must pay attention to traditions and culture when building central decisions (Lecture Notes, 10 July 2017 3). In Confucianism, a sage or a clever man is a perfect individuality. The idea of the third concept is the capability to observe the basic ceremonies, rituals, and high opinion, which enrich a person's mind.
The fourth concept of the East Asian tradition of political thought and action is the concept of Zh?, which defines persons all mental activities, the point of mental abilities, the degree of possessed knowledge, as well as the ability to understand other people. For the political area and the effectiveness it was important to have systematic abilities; the necessary method of obtaining information was the training of those (Yao 220). The political society, understood broadly as a political aspect of the cultural situation in society and taking into account the individuality of the civilization growth, allows a deeper examination of the causes of many political difficulties, both national and worldwide.
The fifth idea of East Asian traditional politics is the conception of X?n which refers to a person's life position and the belief he/she professes. It creates an initial thought which relies on the Will of Heaven. It should be noted that the majority were linked to the problem of the power of the government and the society (Yao 215). The location of the leaders of government was unstable; within each of them there was a great effort to achieve the position of the highest aristocracy, some representatives of which claimed the influence of the highest spiritual forces on them.
From the perspective of relationships, there are different responsibilities: kids and parents, managers and workers, teachers and students. If the youngster should be dedicated to the elders, the elders should demonstrate benevolence. The humane administration consisted in severe loyalty to its duties. Confucianism called on national servants to be clever, showing dignity with their personal example and not burdening people with firm obligations (Lecture Notes, 10 July 2017 2). The reasoning of the Confucian doctrine is the common harmony achieved by the attempt of every associate of the society. The symbols of Heaven promoted the elevation of the regulations in the government. Significantly, in all concepts it is unfeasible to analyze the government and a policy discretely from humanity and from the person.
Having all things considered, the main belief of Confucianism was the idea of worldwide justice. It justified the presence of workers in the society, justified the continuation of mental and physical work, called for obedience to the higher establishment and to the order recognized by the higher control. Confucianism played a chief role in shaping the political traditions of many states in East Asia. The main Confucian component of political tradition and its growth in the modern context also increase the worldwide prestige of the East Asian countries among rising countries outside the Asian region. The specific character of the countrywide political tradition allows, to some extent, to expect the foreign policy proceedings of the Chinese states on the global arena, as well as the political location within the country. In the political customs, these attitudes and orientations, projected at preserving the available political organization, take the principal place.
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