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Primate Species

Human beings tend to be part of biological continuum with other primates. The two examples that exhibit this behavior are their social interactions and their mode of accessing food. The social interactions reflect how species from both families relate to each other. For instance, this is evident when the male orangutans participate in forced copulation with female partners who are not willing to engage in the act. In addition, the male gorillas commit infanticide to get a new fertile mate. These acts reflect the biological behavior of male aggression in humans that involve rape. The second example concerns the feeding habit of the primates and how they access food. Non-human primates such as gorillas search for food to satisfy their offspring. They go to an extent of inventing tools to facilitate their access to food. Human beings also portray the same behavior when they find food for their families.

Concerning the mating behavior, both human beings and other species differ when it comes to gender. The male species in both cases appear to be dominant over the female species behavior wise and physically. This explains why in both cases the male behavior is more aggressive than that of their female counterparts and often results in behaviors such as rape. This extends to offspring, as in case of both primates the young males appear more active than their female counterparts. The male juvenile cohorts spend much of their time in active physical play; this behavior is the same when compared to human children under the same circumstances. Primates consider play as a way of developing their social skills and bonds (Kimbel, 1993).

The young female monkeys and apes socialize more in safer areas, and they play less roughly. They maintain social ties with other females and socialize to improve their parental skills. This biological behavior of interaction tends to be similar in young female human beings, since when they play they assume the role of mothers.

In matters that concern kinship, human beings maintain the ties through marriage and the descent from the same ancestors. The non-human primates recognize the matrilineal descent in which they know their mother but fail to recognize their father. Socially, non-human primates do not value their paternity, and find it non-existing in the family circle. These species find the bonds between a mother and children vital and always maintain them. This also applies to human beings as the mother is always close to her children when compared to their fathers. The other behaviors such as incest are rare in human beings and other primates.

Primates such as chimpanzees have wider social interactions that involve friends and relatives in their neighborhood. The same behavior also exists in human beings biologically; they tend to multiply, which leads to extended families that involve relatives. For instance, in chimpanzee community, when they unite, they greet each other and it is rare to find them displaying aggressive behavior. The same applies to humans in their gathering; they socialize, exchange greetings and introduce each other. In continuum with primate species, human beings tend to be intelligent when executing their duties. This behavior is also similar to chimpanzees as they apply teamwork to assist them in achieving their goals.

The primate species such as monkeys and baboons behave in a way that both genders have different numbers of mates. This situation is also the same in human beings; it is common for men especially when they marry many wives but rare for women. The primate species such as baboons also exercise polygamous behavior as human beings. This is a situation whereby the male lives with a number of females and regularly mates with them. However, this behavior is not common to human beings; instead, monogamy dominates the situation because of culture. The male serves as the dominant partner in a case where there are several wives in human beings. On the contrary, in some primate species such as the geladas, it is the female species who dominates in the relationship. This is their behavior even if the male appear to be strong and aggressive in the social entity.

In other primate groups such as the baboons, it is the male who dominates the group to protect them from predator pressure. The non- human primate species similar to human beings also have monogamous families. This consists of adult male, female and children and is common in human beings, and other primate species such as the titi monkeys and gibbons (Smuts, 1987). In this group, it reaches a stage when children leave and form their families at maturity. The other primates such as the orangutans involve a single mother and her offspring the same way as human beings. This case arises when the male leaves alone, children move away when they attain their sexual maturity.

The social structure of primates involves both human beings and the non-human species that stay in large communities. The large group plays a role of providing protection in species such as baboons. In non-human species, communities tend to be aggressive to each other. It is rare to find baboons socializing with members of other groups the way human beings behave.

Food is also a compelling example that reveals how human beings are in the continuum with other primate species. The non-human primates such as chimpanzees use basic tools to search for food and water. They exhibit this behavior when they strip the twig leaves in search for ants and termites to eat. Among the chimpanzees, male hunt for meat in small groups and females teach the young ones what is edible in the environment. In continuum with other primates, the male human is responsible for finding food for his family. The female prepares the food and feeds the children similar to the way mothers in non-human primates behave. In matters that concern tools, human beings have invented modern tools that assist in manufacturing food for consumption.

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