Urban Public Policy
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This essay outlines the program and administrative mechanisms that are being used by various agencies including the governments, non-governmental organizations and local authorities and provides a modern structure for tackling key urban concerns in the developing countries.
There are five main reasons for examining governments, NGO’S, and local authorities present urban development policy:
v Urbanization is escalating at such a swift pace that by the year 2014 a good number of people living in rural areas will shift to cities;
v In spite of the perception of the relevant stakeholders emphasizing on rural development weby now have a very outsized, if not out of all proportion, urban portfolio;
v the emphasis on institutional development, private enterprise development, economic policy reform and technology transfer offers us with an chance to re-establish the links between the development of rural areas and the development of urban areas;Though world poverty rests intense in rural areas, such a classification is not illustrative of all the countries
v Urban centers get big proportions of country resources, the administration ofwhich can have extensive affirmative or undesirable effects on the attainment of overall development objectives.
v Owing to populace and economic pressures, urban populace are locating ever more in areas and configurations which are susceptible to natural disasters, exhibiting a significantrise in economic and social risk.
While most NGO’S are concerned with all social and economic activities that take place in urban areas, it is not restricted to undertakings which could only take place in urban areas.
The Urban Development public Policy recognizes that NGO’s urban programs should put emphasis on undertakings which have a comparative benefit in terms of available skills and expertise.
The main commendations for this essay are:
- i. That NGO’s Goals in planning a development plan to think about programs located inurban areas as part of aggregate development attempt. Before developing such programs, NGO’s goals using available logical methodologies and resources should consider broadly the urban framework in which policy restructurings and institutional development undertakings are to be executed
- In view of NGO’s resource limitations, NGO’s are encouraged to use support got from other stake holders, skills, expertise, and funding to the ultimate extent possible. NGO’s havea couple of tools and tactics that can be useful to urban problems and concerns.
That the matters concerning the division of resources to urban areas be solved on a country by-country platform, founded on rigorous socioeconomic criteria and enhanced indulgent of the processes of economic growth and urbanization
- That NGO’s platform of undertakings include:
a. Provision for the research of country development policies which would result to the suitable distribution of resources between urban and rural areas in sustenance of national developmentaims.
b. Upgrade of the progression of the non-farm private sector through undertakings that that expand the operational of capital and labor markets so as to improve the output of the private division in offering employment opportunities and thus lessening urban poverty.
c. Housing plans and programs for the urban poor, that is, particular locations and services and settlement elevation programs which emphasis on affordability and cost reclamation.
d. Sustenance forhealth, education, public development programs which improve human resources and stimulate overall urban development policy.
e. Sustenance for urban established development at the local and national levels of government through platforms that propagate efficiency, coaching to strengthen capacity, and amendment of policies that respond to the demands of the urban deprived and enhance the private sector aid to development.
In areas that are frequently affected by disaster, upgrade of metropolitan and national policies that encourage the establishing of secure settlements and buildings should be adopted.
g. If the government attaches extreme importance to infrastructure components of development ventures in urban locations and wishes to fund these capital amenities with the funded commodity import platforms, then, the Goal Identified may correspond in such uses if they are in generally coherent with the criteria that is stipulated by the respective NGO’s provisions and mutually agree with the country‘s development objectives.
There is no logical division referred to as an urban area, rather there is a couple of undertakings that take place in urban sites. These undertakings are normally related with the traditional development zones such as industry or transportation, which remain an issue both in urban and rural areas. The suitable policies and programs, within the traditional development arena are chosen in respect to the city capacity and growing rates, current deficiency and future demands, and the city economic development utilities
There is no totally acknowledged definition of what establishes an urban location. However, For the sake of this essay we will refer "urban" any discretely governed populace mass in which at least 2/3 of the population derives their income from economic undertakings other than farming.
Nature of urban concerns
The scantly developed world has become amore and more urbanized society. The ratio of urban population to that of rural population has been decreasing since 1950. In less developed countries, the ratio of rural people to urban people was 3:1. Since then there have been serious migrations and in 1980, that ratio had increased to 2: 1. According to present projections, there will be ten rural dwellers for every nine urbanites. The development confronts and results of this move in population are massive.
In reply to the massive aspect of less developed countries urbanization, there has been a trend to advance strategies to regulate the urbanization process. This essay argues that this adverse assessment is incorrect and that affirmative approaches to urbanization are necessary alongside with development approach that seeks fair urban and rural economic growth as required on a country-by-country platform hence supporting the currentNGO’s rural emphasis and improving its potentiality for success.This assessment is reinforced by two main ideologies which have been well-known by research:
- Urban economies and rural economies are dependent to each other; and
- Relocation from rural to urban areas in nations that have excess rural populations and very high individual/land ratios is, generally, beneficial to both the rural and urban economies.
Urbanization and its implications on economic development
Though there are many explanations in respect to the development of urban areas like public administration, military defense, and religious, the main reason has been perceived economic success that is easily achievable in urban areas. People tend to concentrate because they perceive economic incentives hence resulting to such aconcentration.
Economic progression and development are almost of course associated with increased urbanization. Certainly, the development of urban locations has been traditionally related to the increase of agricultural excesses and the enhanced commercialization of agriculture. Urban growth, which results out of economics of increased accumulation, decreases the cost of fabrication of most goods and serviceswhich are not location specific. Thus, urbanization is not only unavoidable but also advantageous tothe economy.
It is also important to remember that, urbanization goes along with excess demand for housing, sewerage, water, and other urban amenities, and by also escalating levels of unemployment. These complications may be fueled up by poor public policy, such as high subsidization of services and meddling in labor markets.
Urban public policy development program
NGO’s urban development Policy is founded on the following working assumptions:
- NGO’s urban development establishments should assist in the achievement of NGO’s general development goals.
- NGO’s urban development policy should be focused around the 4 areas of Agency policy: policy reform, private enterprise development, and technology transfer. And institutional development
- NGO’s urban development plans will differ from country-by-country subject to themotive of urbanization in attaining general national development goals in eachparticular scenario.
- Urban development policy should pursue foundations and not indicators at the local and national levels.In the framework of urban issues that affect most of the developing countries, these presumptions head us to the following conclusions regarding NGO’s urban policy.
Major Issues that NGO’s should address
There are 6 issues we should be concerned with.
1. National macroeconomic and sectorial plans which have an implication on the efficiency of urban markets and general distribution of materials in ways that will attain equilibrium between urban and rural development.
2. Policies which bar the informal and formal private sector in establishing the required number of job opportunities to cut unemployment to a reasonable level.
3. The inability of urban institutions, both private and public, to offer the level of goods and services (education, health, housing, sewerage and water and transportation) demanded to meet minimal thresholds.
4. The inability of urban governments to control efficiently the services they provide and to stimulus the amount of revenues required to functionalize municipal governments
5. The fact that rural-urban migration and the dynamics of population growth mean that
the demand for new urban land, infrastructure, shelter, social facilities, and employment opportunities will in many cases super pass the ability of local governments to keep pace.
6. Policies which constrain the potential input of private sector investments in urban areas can make in energizing rural productivity.
Most urban problems are as a result of low levels of general development. Countries withper capita levels of $300 are not able be to provide affordable housing, formal sector jobs to all, adequate health care, or even a large proportion, of its citizens. But other problems arise from bureaucracies in resource allocation due to institutional faults (including poorly operating markets) and unsuitable policies on the part of less developed countries governments at both the local and national levels. Distinctly the urban mess must be solved basically by the governments and people of the less developed countries themselves.
Urban public policy programs to be considered
Working hand in hand with other like-minded agencies, NGO’s must continue to policy the urbanization process and enhancing the support of urban cities to national economic development. The suitable leveland range of urban programming should be defined on a country-by-country platform. Theparticular content of NGO’s urban programming should be linked to the 4 policy stresses ofthe Agency: policy reform, private enterprise development, and technology transfer, institutional development.Classesof urban programming which can be reinforced:
Support for economic development policies
The development of country economic development policies that will lead to the proper distribution of resources between rural and urban areas in backing of national development goals is of outstanding significance. Of particular substance, in terms of their misleading effects on both rural and urban areas are policies that have been devised to influence net resource allocations from the rural to the urban sector. These policies frequently dominate yields to the traditional ruraldivision in order to: achieve mechanical cost-of-living cuts for urban populations; or mechanically manipulate yields in support of certain interest groups in urban locations.
Backing for the private sector and job creation
Programming planned to advance the working of capital, production process, and labor andconsumer markets so as to boost the output of the private sector in offering employment opportunities is suitable. This can incorporate expansion of local credit societies, including joint efforts among small-sale businesses hence decreasing the transaction costs of borrowing, regulatory restraints on smaller enterprises in the context of on-going platforms such as localtax and administrative reform, assistance to local administrations in eliminating administrative and establishment of many opportunities for private involvement inurban development, including the delivery of urban services and those undertakings supportive ofagricultural and rural business.
Backing for housing policies and programs for the urban deprived
NGO’s Housing Security Program is astimulating case of the way in which the 4policy stresses of the Agency have been amalgamated into a comprehensive urban development program that advances the efficiency of urban markets while resolving the necessities of the urban deprived. By the introduction of new techniques of low-cost housing and by inspiring governments to adopt benchmarks for suchshelter that arereasonable and inexpensive to the poor, the housing security program makes it possible to cut housing subsidies and thus turn over low-cost housing funds and building to the private sector.
This program also exemplifies NGO’s policy priority for evading general subsidization of urban infrastructure while guaranteeing assistance that will support private enterprise and lessen problems that are not adequately taken care of by private organizations.
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