The Concept National Security
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The concept national security refers to the requirement to maintain state stability through use of political power, power projection, economic power, and diplomacy. This concept was developed in United States of America following the Second World War. National security encompasses a great range of facets most of which impinge on economic security of the core national values (Richard 8). For a nation to have and defend its national security, it needs to posses environmental security, energy security, as well as economic security (Susan 41). There have been several security threats which are common and hinder attainment of national security. These national security threats not only involve conventional foes like the nation-state, but also involve other players such as multinational corporations, nongovernmental authorities and other civil organizations (Susan 61). There are quite a number of policy measures taken into place to ensure national security: Mantainance of effective security defense forces helps to protect the territorial boundaries of the nation and defend territorial integrity. Through the defense force sovereignty of the nation is attained. The state has the core mandate to provide counter intelligence services in order to protect the country from internal threats. Moreover redundancy and resilience is critical in provision of integrated national security (Susan 56).
This paper will discuss the effects of poverty on economic growth and development and ascertain whether there are any measures which can be taken into place in matters of poverty reduction strategies (Susan112). Any relationship between poverty and economic growth and development and its various consequences will be broadly discussed. Poverty as a national security threat is defined as a situation of deprivation and wants (Aaron 114). In most of the developing countries, The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than the wealth of the world’s seven rich people when combined. This national security issue is contributed by lazy nationals who make poor investment decisions.Moreover; the government of such countries has pursued policies that harm successful economic growth and development. In such cases, inequality and unequal distribution of wealth are eminent (Aaron 117).
Economic growth and development is one of the important factors aimed at reducing poverty and generating essential resources necessary for human development. With the income definition of poverty, Human poverty index (HPI) presents broader definition and looks at its consequences on the development agenda(Richards 21). Human poverty index will include measures of illiteracy levels; lack of access to education, lack of access to health services, adequate nutrition as well as drinking water.Inadequency of these facilities translates to poor economic conditions and inadequate living standards. The figure below clearly illustrates the relationship between poverty and other human conditions (Aaron 70). As a natural disaster, poverty becomes a threat to national security because it impacts on the life expectancy of people. For example, in most developing countries, the life expectancy is low as compared to developed countries.Moreover; child mortality rate is of great increase in poor countries (Richards99). Premature deaths and child immortality rates negatively affect economic growth and development. With a greater percent of population consuming less than one dollar per day weakens nutrition and health status of the victims and therefore renders them unproductive to the economy (Aaron 81). Poverty affects economic growth and development because it leads to social evils such as prostitution, alcoholism which retards development. Social evils such as theft and prostitution further retards economic growth and development. This is because development can not be realized in an immoral society. Poor health resulting from malnutrition translates to increased expenditure on medication and income that would have been used in other sectors of development is channeled to medication. This definitely affects economic growth and development (Anderson 71).
Different governments have enacted different poverty reduction strategies. This is aimed at strengthening development and weakening of poverty as a major national disaster. In order to improve economic growth and development, The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country should increase (Aaron 164). To increase the GDP, it is therefore essential to increase the means of true wealth creation. As a poverty reduction strategy issue, aimed at improving the economic growth and development as well as increasing the per capital income, key poverty reduction strategies and enactment as well as implementation of effective poverty strategy must be taken into place (Anderson 345).
Poverty as a national security issue has been contributed by large international debts from international finance organization that are detrimental to the environment and to poor. With this in mind, it is policy issue to reduce external borrowing and decrease costs on imports in order to assist the country to uplift its economy and further translate it to flourishing economy.Therefore, from the above discussion, it is evident that there is a relationship between poverty which is a national security issue and economic growth and development (Anderson112). Reduction in poverty is mainly attributed from increased growth in the economy.Additionally; authors have also found out that the effects on economic growth on poverty are great. Through statistical use of formal error correction model, increase in economic growth and development is to a larger extent related to poverty reduction rate of families (Anderson127). From a poverty policy perspective, there exists a strong negative correlation between poverty and economic growth ad development.Notablely, there has been problems pertaining use of poverty measurement variable and therefore the standard measure of poverty formally defined by United states is adopted.
The relationship between poverty and economic growth and development is exemplified in the diagram below. This graphical representation has been captured through effective data collection and analysis. In this view, a case study of sub-Saharan Africa from the year 1970 to 2006 has been taken into keen and careful analysis (Aaron 88). The graph provides a pretty conclusion that if poverty was to be reduced in Africa, then concerdration on economic growth and development should be greatly emphasized. This article explains on upbeat assessment on growth and poverty reduction (Richard 76). The sustainability in poverty eradication measures in Africa is purely attributed to development of the economic through proper and adequate policy measures.
The statistical analysis of the below diagram explains that there is a strong coefficient of correlation on poverty and economic development (Richards 980). The x-axis connotes the poverty rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. On the y axis, the rate of economic growth is manifested Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The Gross Percapita income is represented by the red graph line. From the graphical representantation, a clear relationship between poverty rate, economic growth and for a specified period of time in Sub-Saharan Africa is established (Richards 1065).
Figure 2: The relationship between poverty rate and Economic Development in terms of Gross Domestic Product.
Source: (Richards 1002).
In conclusion, poverty as a national disaster and national security threat needs implementation of disaster mitigation programme (Susan 367).With this view, it is important to stipend economic development projects in order to reduce poverty levels. The national security aspect of poverty is mitigated through enactment of proper policy issues on poverty (Aaron 79). Therefore, to facilitate the poverty reduction rate in developing countries, measures aimed at reducing poverty such as minimizing public debts, discouraging immorality, reducing rate of importation as well as cultivation of good and efficient bilateral trade agreement aimed at strengthening international trade and market diversification in order to generate revenue (Susan 212). This revenue can be invested in economic development through economic growth stimulus project. Through this initiative poverty as a global issue can be reduced .Involvement of partisan in public projects and environmental conservation project is central issue in poverty reduction (Anderson 118).
International organizations such as international monetary fund (IMF) and World Bank should organize for Global economic forums geared at elevating poverty as a global issue. With the broader theme of mitigating and strengthening National security, a focus on social safety net programmes and their implementation at community level is essential(Anderson 456). The international Committee on disaster mitigation and preparedness should embrace the need for broad social development in areas such as human resource development, education, community health as well as development and population (Anderson 345). Through such initiatives, a state in need can attain a higher and recommendable of state security particularly in realm of poverty issues and their associated consequences.
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