On key analysis of the book Correctional Administration Integrating Theory and Practice, correctional administration has a multifaceted concept. This book pays significant attention to present correctional issues and their policy procedures (Richard, 2009, p.21). The book has provided an excellent coverage on the theory and practice of correctional administration. Indeed, it has compared the past, future and present in realm of correctional administration and management. This book has provided the learners with understanding of critical issues (Richard, 2009, P.32). The concept correction and management refers to managing offenders and their enabling environment to lure them from the law deterrence. This book is targeted to benefit the correctional professionals working in the prison and other people who may be interested in correction administration. The book has provided practical perspectives including excellent case studies which are incorporated throughout the text (Richard, 2009, p.37). Correctional administration strategies have been elaborated in order to assist in key decision making and correctional policy implementations. The complete analysis of the book stated that the first chapter is composed of information on correctional management and administration and provides an in-depth correlation ranging from earliest work on criminal justice to present (Richard, 2009, p.19). This chapter embraces the complete description of management development in individual private sector. Further it elaborates on how the management was transferred and redirected in order to meet the needs of public sector bureaucracies (Richard, 2009, p 42).
On the other hand, the book Probation and Parole/Theory and Practice, written by Howard, explains a state of art view on probation and parole (Howard, 2008, p.20). Controversial issues have been addressed to capture the antagonism between community needs to curb deviance and social control and enhance safety (Howard, 2008, p.12). The book provides a wider knowledge on controlling operational costs in prisons and correction department.
Positive verbal communication is necessary in maintenance of trust within the community. In correction and rehabilitation, police officers and prison wardens have made use of interpersonal skills in order to interact with each other on a professional level and to coordinate effective community relations. For example, positive verbal communication makes use of Public Affairs Officer (PAO) in four main realms. These include newspapers and television among others (Richard, 2009, p.45). Through positive communication, Public Affairs Officer has the core responsibility to present the police department in a positive manner at the same time making sure that the security of citizens is not compromised. Positive verbal demands can be made in the field of administration. For example, a correctional warrant officer can shoot a gun into the air as a verbal positive command and a sign of correctional facility (Richard, 2009, p.57).Therefore, positive verbal communication entails verbal statements with positive outcomes directed towards the employees, inmates and peers.
The main challenge in correctional administration is leadership management and delegation process. There is no doubt that efforts to delegate duties in correctional environment is an operational responsibility for prison authorities (Richards, 2009, p.98). The judiciary and government authorities have ruled out several cases of duties’ delegation by the correctional staff and authority. However, delegation and its role can not be under estimated in reference to adequacy management structure in prisons. This is because it is the key motivational factor to staff improvement (Richards, 2009, p.111). There have been no national policies against or for private delegation, or policy battles in legislative chambers as well as in imprison services. Moreover, this book expounds on the importance of staff trainings and development. Prison wardens and security masters should be trained effective management of prison chambers. Knowledge on hygiene in jails is essential. Additional positive verbal communications and knowledge of habit bursting is acquainted to all the prison and correctional staff. This enables them to understand how to advice the drug addicts to stop their addiction characters and assume normal prison life (Richards, 2009, p.131). Correctional medical officers are entrusted with authority to ensure suitability as well as cleanness of prison uniforms. Listening process and understanding behavior of inmates is a central requirement of all the correctional personnel. Correctional programming today has involved the effectiveness of understanding the manifested behavior of inmates (Howard, 2008, p.156). Many cases have been reported of prisoners committing suicide or of remands because their needs were not being catered. Understanding is critical amongst the staff for efficient management in prison department (Howard, 2008, p.160).
Probation officers have played a key role in correction and rehabilitation. The corrective services legislation has provided probation as the main form of early release of offenders (Richard, 2009, p.170). The parole models have ensured that offenders can address offensive behavior and start rehabilitation programs (Howard, 2008, p.173). The probation and parole model is deemed to be composed of four main categories: induction and assessment, offender management, compliance and surveillance as well as offender intervention (Richard, 2009, p.124). Correctional staffs conduct assessments to establish a substantial case management plan.
This is based on offenders’ risks and individual needs. Offender management encompasses helping offenders to refrain from offending and prevent re-offending (Howard,2008, p.118). Most experienced probation and parole staff manage high risk offenders. In many cases, corrective services are administered by staff working in intelligence departments. Offender intervention is mainly composed of programs tailored to ensure proper crime mitigation (Richard, 2009, p.164). In the efforts to ensure correction and rehabilitation, probation officers have the mandate of assisting prisoners to give up habits of alcoholism, bhang addiction, and chewing of miraa. With the increased cases of drug and substance abuse in prison premises, probation officers are playing key roles to salvage the behavior. Probation/parole officers work as information managers, educators, brokers and advocates (Richard, 2009, p.165).There roles also center in law enforcement, rehabilitation, agent dictation and enforcers. As brokerd, the parole officers take the sole responsibility for linking the client with the available services (Howard, 2008, p.182). As a law enforcement agent, he attempts to control the entire surrounding community through clients’ protection (Richard, 2009, p.171). Probation officers are mandated to conduct arrests and are allowed to make unwarranted searches to potentially violent criminals and their environments. They are allowed to carry firearms when on duty in order to enforce law and order. Therefore, probation and parole officers must have a background information and knowledge on sociology, psychology and criminal justice (Richard, 2009, P.186).
In a nutshell, the two books talk of different but closely related subjects of study. The book correction and administration explains the organizational behavior of correctional personnel and their expected ethics code and etiquette in their work place (Howard, 2008, p.191). The book Probation and Parole/Theory and Practice emphasizes the duties and obligations of probation and parole officers in criminal justice administration. All the same the two books explain main agenda of employee relations, roles and practices in correction administration. (Richard, 2009, p.203)