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Essay Samples > Definition > Mental Disorders
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Mental Disorders

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Mental disorder is a psychological pattern associated with a disability that takes place in an individual. Treatment for mental illness is done in psychiatric hospitals. There are two types of treatment in mental disorders. They are pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. In pharmacotherapy, there is the use of drugs in treating the illness, where the disorder is stabilized or cured (Lundbeck Institute, 1999). This is different from psychotherapy because in psychotherapy, there is no use of drugs, but the use of verbal or nonverbal communication in treatment of mental disorder. There is the development of a trusting relationship that facilitates free communication hence, the discovery of what causes the disorders. There are various types of psychotherapy such as behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, group therapy among others (Lundbeck Institute, 1999).

Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy are almost similar because, in the former one is induced with drugs while the latter is administered using shock. It is administered to anaesthetized patients and is perceived as a cruel or inhumane approach to treating mental disorders. The electric shock induces epileptic seizures which result in neurotransmitters release in the synaptic clefts. Electroconvulsive therapy is cruel, but pharmacotherapy is humane in that the patient does not experience any pain in the treatment process (Lundbeck Institute, 1999).

Cognitive therapy is based on interoperating the situations how an individual feels or behaves. In this therapy cognition is the determinant of the process of acquiring behavior and mood. The cognitive behavior psychotherapy concentrates on both the cognitive and the behavior. In the latter pharmacotherapy is recommended, so as to reduce the recurrence rate of some disorders. In cognitive therapy, no pharmacotherapy is needed and study of behavior is the primarily practice where irrational beliefs are confronted after being exposed. Phobia is best treated using this psychotherapy. This is achieved after assessing the maladaptive thoughts (Lundbeck Institute, 1999). 

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