Surrogate parenting involves the process of a woman bearing the child of actually of another woman who cannot bear children because of various physical complications including blocked fallopian tubes, weak or no uterus and other complicated diseases (Australian Associated Press, 2006). Been a surrogate mother actually means, "Leasing your womb" in actual terms.
Mother-child relationship is an enormous ethical issue relating to surrogate parenting. A study by the Child Psychology and family Research Centre in London in the year 2002 made conclusions that surrogate mothers hardly ever had difficulty relinquishing child’s rights to a surrogate child as the case with mothers conceiving naturally (Rosemary, 2007). However, Anthropological studies on the topic of surrogate parenting show that surrogates practice several distancing techniques during the surrogate pregnancy to avoid developing emotional attachments to the baby. Many surrogates try fostering developing emotional attachment for the intended mother and the child that seems a dilemma and a difficult routine to achieve. Instead of the natural expectation that children develop attachments to the mother naturally, there is a compromise to this natural practice (Kelly, 2005).
In the case of compensated surrogacy, commonly known as "Commercial surrogacy", there are ethical and controversial issues. This case refers to a point where the gestational carrier receives payment to carry a child until maturity in her womb. The ethical concern is culturally bound where medical necessity especially for infertile women turns out to be a convenience for the rich in the society. There is a tendency or a risk of many wealthy women preferring this method other than natural birth, a practice involving stress and pain (Australian Associated Press, 2006).
The citizenship of the child also comes out as an ethical issue in surrogate parenting especially in the modern world where the practice globally merges different parents across borders. Emotional and legal relationship of both the natural parent and the baby is of considerable importance. Many countries have difficulties in giving and demarcating citizenship in such circumstances. It is difficult because even the intended parents have a right legally to own the child therefore, making it theirs and ascribing to their nationality. There are still no solutions in many countries over this issue of citizenship in surrogate parenting (Rosemary, 2007).
Owing to the practice of surrogate parenting, the definition of the family is drastically changing. It is loosing meaning in the societal terms. The family in this case applies because it gives the Right of Identity of Origin to the child involved in surrogate parenting. The Declaration of Human Rights has acknowledgements that men and women should, “marry and develop a family.” By this, the declaration means that founding a family involves two couples naturally giving birth with an absolute right of having children (Kelly, 2005). It is in only in the natural family, that a child can primarily discover his identity as well as their individuality. This is all compromised by the issue of surrogate parenting since the child is distanced totally from the natural family and deceased of his identity (Australian Associated Press, 2006).
There is a tendency of surrogate mothers paid to engage in the practice. The practice in many poor and developing nations reveals as exploitation of the poor. Many wealthy nation states exploit poor mothers in the suburb and undeveloped countries all in the name of surrogate parenting. The routine is even involving fertile couples who can afford meeting the cost involved. This procedure in India reaches impressive propositions where poor surrogates are forced into the act because of the high cost of medical infrastructure (Kelly, 2005).
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