The police are an integral part of any state playing an important role in maintenance of the country’s internal security. Each nation which created its own government inevitably has a need for a special organization which purpose is a struggle against criminality and public order protection.
The police, as well as any other social system, constantly evolve the changes in a social sphere which are accompanied with the changes and management of the police. There are new kinds of crimes, the attitude of a society to law-enforcement sphere, and the state changes as a whole; the purposes of public progress are reinterpreted. There are new motive forces for social development – police bodies are reformed: its functions are specified, the organizational structure is transformed, and new recruitment strategies substitute the old ones.
The centralized police represent a hierarchical organization subordinated to a uniform management and usually exist in the unitary countries (for example, in France and Finland). The decentralized police are characteristic for the states with the federal structure. The US police include three links: federal police, states police, and local police. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is the highest instance of the federal police.
The private police are a characteristic feature of some world countries. Its aims are to protect big industrial, transport and other enterprises, offices, and private properties. There are more than 40 thousand independent police departments. The police system appeared under the influence of the democratic ideas of the Independence Declaration (1776) and the Constitutional principles (1787).
The USA has the following system of the police bodies:
1) the police departments in cities and settlements;
2) sheriffs and agencies headed by them in districts;
3) the police formations of states;
4) the police organizations of the federal government included into the Ministries of Justice, Post Offices, Preasures, Internal affairs, Defense, etc.
Modern institutes of law-enforcement bodies appeared on the European continent. Scientists consider the Metropolitan Police to be a prototype of modern police, formed according to the Statute of 1861 “Act of Metropolotan Police” in Great Britain. It was the first world professional regular organization the competence of which included the questions of protection of the law and order.
Then, the police officers fulfilled the inspectors’ duties: they patrolled a city, kept order on the streets controlling the brightness of street lanterns and the intensity of noise, and prevented fights in public places. Moreover, the police fulfilled the problem of public morals protection. During this period, the police were not engaged in the investigation of serious crimes. It was necessary for a victim to hire a private detective to begin a criminal prosecution and to take the collected proofs to court.
The vital reform of the policing recruit requirements in the majority of the countries of Western Europe and in the USA began in the 1930s-40s. An ideological basis of reform was the concept of police professionalizing: liberation of the police organization from a political control and intervention in its activity, development of the qualifying requirements for the candidates while recruiting to the police service, the development of educational police programs, etc.
The work of policemen is characterized by communication with unbalanced and inadequate people – alarmists, boors, and hysteric people. Therefore, the recruitment process should take into account the consideration of all requirements.
Initial stage in human resource management is recruitment which includes, first of all, such processes as a selection of personnel. A subsequent activity of human resource management depends on how this recruitment process is conducted and what kinds of people are selected for work in the organization. Therefore, it is necessary to concern this stage seriously, considering the experience kept in domestic and foreign practice of the police.
“Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) increase the pool of applicants with minimum cost, 2) meet the organization’s legal and social obligations concerned with the demographic make-up of its workers, 3) and assist with increasing the success rate of the selection process through the elimination of poorly qualified applicants with inadequate skills” (Udechukwu, 2009).
There are a lot of recruitment methods used both by the state police and by local law enforcement agency. They can be active and passive.
Active methods are usually used by the state police. First of all, they include personnel recruitment, i.e. in other words, establishment of the contacts of the potential employees by the police. The employees are recruited at competitors through the state employment centers and through private intermediary companies.
Passive methods of personnel recruitment are applied by law enforcement bodies. One of the versions of passive methods of policing personnel recruitment is placing the announcements of vacant positions about the level and requirements to candidates, repayment terms of work and data in external and internal mass media.
The all-round complex estimation of the personnel in the police can be fulfilled on the basis of research of various aspects of a candidate, objective personnel data, business and moral qualities, life experience, professional knowledge and abilities, health and working capacity, office career and other aspects.
The recruitment process in the police includes the following elements:
- calculation of personnel demand;
- positions models;
- professional personnel selection;
- formation of a personnel reserve.
The work of an administrative board of any organization, including the police and law enforcement agency, is inseparably connected with the realization of search and personnel recruitment process. An overall performance of the police substantially depends on the fact how qualitatively the search and selection of workers were done. Therefore, the procedure of personnel search and recruitment should be considered in complex with a general control system of the police and its personnel selection. In this connection, the search and selection of the police workers demand a complex approach considering the requirements of a post, organization, choice of adequate recruitment methods, etc.
At present, there is no one optimum method of personnel recruitment, therefore, the police should own a whole set of methods for attraction of candidates and use them depending on a specific goal. The selection of new workers does not provide only a mode of normal functioning, but also lays the foundation for the future success of the police.