Several empirical studies have confirmed that during Mubarak’s 30 year era as president of Egypt, Egypt suffered not just politically but also economically. Statistics show that Mubarak assisted by Gamal and Alaa, his two sons, squandered public funds while in office as well as promoted corruption. Over the years, corruption has been a principal cause of distress to the Egyptian government. However, this study hypothesizes that Mubarak’s term in office as the president did not necessary reduce corruption levels in the country as would be expected. The research paper further analyses the possible causes of corruption in the society. Finally, the study outlines the fundamental changes that the Egyptian government can implement to avoid history repeating as in the case of Mubarak.
Corruption in Egypt reached unprecedented heights under Mubarak’s government. This earned his era the title, the era of thieves. He managed to achieve all this under the guise of privatization and the revolution of Egypt’s economy to a market economy. The Mubarak government sold a large chunk of the public sector companies to businessmen who supported him also to foreign companies that were interested. In return, he would get large commissions which he would share amongst his sons and top officials. In most cases, he sold the assets for a value less than a quarter of their actual value. This brought the Egyptian economy to an almost collapse. Mubarak encouraged the Interior Ministry and Intelligence to plunder public funds through the formation of companies that would offer building services and awarded for huge sums of money. The situation was so severe that at times, the money offered would be 20 times the legal amount that would be offered to other companies. These funds were spread across his thresh hold, and was used to strengthen his political position in the country as well as weaken his adversaries.
This paper, thus, highlights the theme of poor leadership, betrayal, corruption, poverty and politics. Mubarak represented poor leadership in Egypt. He squandered public funds with his close allies forcing the rest of the Egyptians to live in poverty. With his poor leadership, he betrayed the people who elected him to power hoping that his intentions were honorable.
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study will be limited to the data between 1981 and 2011. The focus will be in analyzing the era of Mubarak and the impact it had to the Egyptian people. The projected limitations for the study could be; accuracy of data from human rights reviews and other sources due to secrecy of government and financial institutions.
Organization of the study
The remaining part of the study is organized as follows: chapter two reviews the literature on Mubarak’s era as president of Egypt and chapter three which develops the methodology used for the study.
Chapter 2: literature review
Mubarak served Egypt for close to 30 years. In this time, the conditions in Egypt deteriorated so fast that up to date Egypt is still clamoring to recover. Mubarak was a selfish president who lacked vision, aspiration and the desire for progress. This was his greatest crime to the people of Egypt is at a loss of the wealth it failed to generate these past 30 years because of the shortage in his foresight and the incompetence of his cronies who worked for him. Today, poverty and illiteracy are Egypt’s greatest predators. Today, Egyptians forego food in order to pay for extra tuition for their children to complement the poor quality of education they get in schools. The gap between the rich and the poor in Egypt and the corruption of the leaders has been cited as the main causes of the hardships faced in Egypt.
Mubarak was also involved in illegal arms trade. He used these weapons to intimidate his rivals as well as gain political superiority in Egypt. In addition to this, the money he used to buy these arms was embezzled from the public funds. This weighed down heavily on the country leaving it a mere shadow of its former self.
Mubarak, who was the president of Egypt for almost 30 years, resigned on 11th February, 2011. This was after 18 days of mass protests which civilians held to force him out of power. This left 846 people dead and more than 6,000 injured. In addition to this, the former ruling party in Egypt, National Democratic Party (NDP) was disbanded. On July 23rd, 2011 bloody clashes erupted between protestors and the army in Cairo. The outcome of this was more than 300 Egyptians injured.
People responsible for these treacherous acts have been arrested and charged with corruption charges. For example, the former interior minister, Adli, was sentenced to jail over fraud and corruption charges. This is one of the positive steps the government has taken to curb corruption in Egypt. Other measures that could be helpful are; the establishment of an international committee to evaluate and investigate the fortune Mubarak, his family and the heads of his regime has amassed over the years. The international committee should also be tasked with the role of supervising elections and promoting human rights.
Chapter 3: research methodology
3.1. Research Design
The research design will be a descriptive survey to assist the researcher to identify the effects of corruption in Egypt as well as the organizations most affected.
3. 2. Target Population
The population for the proposed research is from the capital of Cairo and its environs. This is because; according to statistics, the capital was mostly affected by corruption. The location will also limit transport costs as libraries and most government offices are located here.
3.3. Sample Size and Sample Selection
A stratified random sample of 70 households from the population will be involved in the survey. The sample frame for the survey will include civilians selected randomly from the various districts. This will enable me to get a fair picture and knowledge of the lifestyle and the troubles the people experience. The sample shall be in proportion of the given settlement.
3.4. Data type and Source
The type of data to be collected will be both primary data from surveys, sampling and estimation also secondary data from written materials and previous studies. The sources of data will be from human rights surveys, financial review articles, Development plans for companies and institutions. The type of data that would be most helpful would be journal articles and newspaper clippings gathered from the time frame 1981-2011. In addition to this, financial records taken from financial institutions and economic journals would be immensely helpful.
3.5. Data Collection
A questionnaire which contains both open and closed ended structure questions will be used for data collection. This data collection is ideal for capturing the general objective of the study. The data will be collected by the researcher and research assistants using a “drop and pick later” method.
3.6. Data Analysis
After the completion of the research, the questionnaires will be edited for completeness and consistency before processing. The data collected will be analyzed using descriptive statistics. This involves the use of frequency tables, percentages, rank ordering, and means scores. Frequency tables will be used for arraying data obtained to facilitate working out percentages in order to address the objective of the study.
3.7. Ethical Issues
In the course of the research, I may encounter some problems due to the inevitable ethical differences. These are such things as lack of cooperation from the sample to be researched on, political interference and insecurity.