Managing and treating wounds has been always a complicated. The aging population and the survival of persons with multiple comorbidity and more complicated pathologies have since gone high in the process of offering treatment to wound problems. In 1997, prospective cohort was established that described a new wound management processes which involved intermittent and the continuous application of sub-atmospheric pressure to human wound patient for an extended duration. The authors did identify various patients of about 40 in numbers who presented chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers and stasis ulcers, sub-acute wounds (open wounds). Almost all the patients who attended were treated with negative pressure until the wounds completely healed; the process went on until it was evident that the healing process could be closed by a surgical procedure which can also be referred to as skin graft or muscle flap. Some of the patients who were against this kind of treatment died. In the3 application of endpoints, wounds healing process had a positive response to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT).
Several pseudonyms became conversant with negative pressure technology including Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), tropical negative pressure (TPN), and vacuum sealing technique (VST), and sealed surface wound suction (SSS); this is what is generally referred to as the wound vac (Bowler et al., 2001). Even though the novelty and origins are controversial, this technique has patented and cleared for marketing by the US Food and Drug Administration; a regulatory system that does not require capitulation of data from controlled efficiency trials. Presently, the wound VAC has rampantly developed is the method that is mostly applied throughout North America and Europe; on the other hand, its relative effectiveness or enhanced aptitude of bringing about wound closure as compared to other means of treatments, more standard methods of wound therapies and efficiency or singular capability to bring about wound closure is questionable. The function of a new therapy also must be examined in terms of its cost effectiveness, it is good to look at whether the expertise produces similar or better outcomes at equal or lower costs and this should also be put into consideration.
Sterna wound contagion occurs usually between 0.4 and 6 per cent in adults and the pediatric population. Nevertheless, in contrast to the grown ups, established treatment options are not evident in pediatric population. In the process of wound management, we evaluated the preliminary results with tree neonates: small infants who undergone through vacuum assisted closure (VAC) therapeutic measures for handling sterna wound infections with the intense of enabling secondary closure as well as the preservation of the sterna borne. The duration of the whole process took 11.3 days (Bowler et al., 1999). After three dressing changes, the infection resolved and the secondary closure was feasible in three of the patients. Isolated specimen included: Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aurous, and lastly MRSA.
These preliminary outshot indicated that VAC therapy was promising as compared to the traditional methodologies of treating wounds. Less than twenty patients were treated by traditional dressing twice a day and the same number also treated with VAC therapy alone. The two groups were almost similar age, sex, and the type of cardiac procedure as well as the type of wound sterna. Those who underwent through the traditional dressing recorded a recognizable mean while the VAC therapy was not related in the process of wound management. To end with, the VAC therapy group had a trend towards a reduced number of debridement and closure. This study therefore tries to evaluate the literature review, methods, results recorded in Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) and the effectiveness of VAC in patients with open wounds in the foot and ankle.