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Organizational Psychology

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Question 1: Hypothesis and variables

In order for a researcher to test hypothesis, “Interviewer’s decision are influenced by job applicant’s appearance” he should identify independent and dependent variables. According to Fisher (1925) independent variable is always the value being manipulated while dependent variable represents the observed result. Hypothesis represented above shows that depended variable is interviewer’s decision while independent variable is applicant’s appearance. Applicant’s appearance is manipulated by the interviewer, and is only by the appearance that an applicant becomes successful or failure in an interview. Interviewer’s decision determines applicant fate (Fisher, 1925).

In this case the research can use statistical hypothesis test in order to make decision of the data collected. The researcher is required to analyze data collected using frequency probability and make decision using null hypothesis test. In interviews contacted the researcher can identify the one which the interviewers used the appearance of the applicant to determine the results of the applicants. An individual can collect data from different job applicants and give information whether the interview process was determined by their appearance. The data collect will help in measuring the truth whether applicant’s appearance determines interview results or not. In order to get appropriate results after measuring the variable the researcher is suppose to be careful while analyzing statistical data, because the data can be irrelevant or from unreliable source (Fisher, 1925).

Question 2: Hawthorne Effect

Hawthorne effect is a type of a reaction in which individuals are able to improve or modify their behavior when they realize that they are being studied. Individuals do not improve in respect of any experiment. Hawthorn effect showed that workers performance depend on certain factors for improvement like maintaining high level of cleanness in work station, relocating the place of work and clearing obstacles. Things like pay rise could result to low working rate because many of the employees may think that the salaries have been increases in order to suck same of the employees in future (Richard, 1991).

In class an instructor can apply the effect by creating proper learning environment to students. This can occur by giving students’ breaks and making fun while teaching. When students are given break they relax and reduce work load. The instructor should make jokes while teaching and students will get the concepts he brings across. Instructors who are always serious tend to make the student to be afraid of what will happen to them. Mostly, students with a serious teacher tends to live in fear when the teacher is in class, and this makes them not to get the concept but concentrate on time keeping (Richard, 1991).

In an organization the effect can be applied by making working environment favorable to all workers. This can be achieved by relocating work place of the workers and promoting the workers to high level. An individual can create many levels in which the employees pass in order to get to senior levels. This will motivate the employee to work add in order to be promoted (Richard, 1991).

Hawthorne effect has been helpful and most preferred in industrial psychology, since it assists in development of organization and ensures growth.  Directors are given direction on how to deal with the employees. The effect assist the employer to create a stress free working environment which makes the workers to became more productive and at the end the organization makes more profit (Richard, 1991).

Question 3: Survey Research

Mostly, researchers carry out research using survey research method. This is a method in which an individual collects data from different people in the filed. The data is then analyzed using many sampling designs and techniques. The information can be collected using questionnaires or direct interview from individuals who can give information about the research (Research methods knowledge base, 2006).

This kind of research has weakness but it remains the most preferred. First, the individuals to give out information can be unwilling to do so thinking that they will be held responsible because of giving information about their organizations or communities. Second, the survey can take a long time which can be expensive. Researcher can collect information but before he ends the process change can occur and the information gathered became irrelevant. There strengths in contacting survey research. This kind of research is simple and the information gathered in the research is easy for individual to understand and analyze. While presenting survey research to individuals it does not take more time for them to understand (Fisher, 1925).

The survey research I did on schools based care on HIV/Aids patients had a lot of challenges. People did not want to give out information and many school heads denied opportunity to gather information from their schools. When I got the relevant data I compiled the research easily and it become more interesting to many social organizations.

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