E-commerce is a whole new economic ecosystem that has been created by the internet, it facilitates the exchange of goods and services locally and internationally. The industry has grown greatly, generating billions in revenue with transactions, impacting every possible industry from travel to media. The internet is being used globally for private and/ or business activities, thus, the e-commerce growth curve is not likely to taper off anytime in the near future. With e-commerce comes web analytics, which can be defined as the study of the impact of a certain website on its users.
Companies that embrace the new and fast growing technology of e-commerce more often than not use web analytic software in their website. This enables them to know and measure concrete details like how many people visited their site, how many people visited the site for the first time and means, in which they came by their site be it a link or directly. This enables them to gather information, regarding the suitability and the degree of effectiveness of the website, which helps them gain sufficient knowledge of the consumers’ wants and needs.
E-commerce companies provide their website administrators ideas and data to create better experience by the user by analysing the comments and recommendations by web analytics. Web analytics can also play an important role monitoring the working of a site’s pages and also monitor how long customers stay on a certain page, what information they accessed and how they exited that certain page through another link.
E-commerce can be analysed just like any other industry with the impact of web analytics being highlighted in how they affect management, technology and organisation and how certain websites can be used to create value in light of these three areas, both to the business and the environment at large.
Contemporary theories of management.
Considering multicultural organisations, contingency theory of contemporary management should be exercised. The theory states that when a manger is making a decision, all aspects of the situation at hand must be put into consideration and in the case of different culture this too should be a part in making the decision. This influences the leadership style being used and can also impact a situation, dealing with e-commerce. Decisions, based on the running of the website and interaction with the users, is clearly determined by the web analytics, brought forth by monitoring the site and analyzing any comments or possible solutions.
Contemporary management can also be seen, using the systems theory. For an organization’s goals to be met a number of inputs should be planned, organized, motivated and controlled for favourable outcomes. Inputs include raw materials, capital, technology and labour; outcomes being quality of productivity for the consumer. These components make parts of the system that are essential for it to work in order. An essential part of the system would be the feedback, how the general public is relating with the product at hand.
Managerial skills and traits
In the global environment of changing and advanced technology, effective management skills are an urgent need and a requirement in many organisations. Organisations need to have effective skills that give them the ability to deal with challenges specific to their organization’s unique vision and objectives. Managers are tasked with the challenge of developing their skills, not just to prove them fit for their jobs but also to stand out in their departments and assignment objectives. Globalisation and rapid development in the technological sector calls for betterment in managerial skills, to enable them deal with the diverse change in the IT aspects (Lott 2010).
It is important for the management to have technical skills in using the tools, resources and information that will help steer the organization towards achieving its goals. The management must provide the necessary tools with the latest and best technology and expertise to be able to manage operations of the organization to boost productivity as well as create a sustainable organizational structure for the existence of a successful business.
An organization is made up of the people that are in it and those that contribute towards the business, which are the customers. The management must have the ability to work with people, understand them and motivate them toward the success of the organization. This is an internet age, where every individual access the internet for information and business.
The ability of the management to provide adequate and extemporary information to the user is a key in attracting more of its customers as well as creating a new market for the organization. However, this needs the management to acknowledge diversity as a key asset for the organization.
In the period of intense competition and realisation of the e-commerce industry and its endless benefits, the consumer retailer industry is being done away with fast. Understanding the industry gives one an upper hand in enabling the organization to keep up with the changing times, enabling it to be a networked, diverse and global organization. Good management is, thus, vital in these changing and rather complex environments.
The quality of the organisation’s managers and the management technique are used in determining an organisation’s ‘culture.’ Managers are tasked with developing their leadership skills as well as those under them and able to exert positive influence on people. Management should develop and utilise planning, organisational and communicational skills, which are key in leadership.
This goes further to influence the productivity of the staff and ultimately the success story or the failures and challenges, faced by the organisation. An effective manager should possess creative problem solving skills, good communication skills, conflict management skills, negotiation skills, practise integrity, which brings about trustworthiness. Integrity is what we say and what we do and what we say we do. A manager, therefore, must be a person of integrity in words and deeds.
An effective manager is one who is a team player; he is willing to work with other teams in the organization to accomplish the set goals. A manager must fully be involved in the activities of the organization and work together with the people in order to achieve success. Once in a while people need a manager who will come in smiling and appreciate the work that the employees are doing. Optimism is an important managerial trait. All of us want a manager who feels good about the work that we do and, in turn, rewards his employees, when they do well. This acts as a source of motivation for the workers and they are able to work in harmony with the manager. The management in an organization is, however, supposed to create a corporate culture and effective system that enhance development.
Managing employees in a multicultural environment
Change in global environment brings forth interaction with different cultures from different backgrounds at the work place. There can be the occurrence of cultural dominance, where a single strong culture needs to be created within the framework of the business subjects such as affiliate and daughter companies, which can be monotonous and rather boring. The new organisational culture that needs to be developed should put emphasis on values and behaviours that are accepted universally.
In this way, the companies act in the same way, thus, use organization and economic advantages of their integrated actions. For this to be a success, managers of the mother company should have beliefs of universality of values and culture. When many cultures are involved, polycentric culture, there occurs a feature that requires cultural compromise. This means that the affiliate or daughter companies bring forth different approach in creating individual cultures in their organization. This is influenced mainly by the location of the affiliate companies and the local environment and the diverse culture of the local labour (Tirmizi 2008).
Management is, therefore, expected to acquire the culture, learn it and bring forth leadership skills in accordance to this new and different culture. The cultural traditions of the local people and environment should still respect universal culture but only to a limited extent. Polycentric culture enables companies be diverse in their dealings and put into consideration the needs of the local environment. We are living in a diverse world, where there are people of different backgrounds, culture, age, sex, beliefs, etc., globalization, however, has brought these people together in all aspects of life, including businesses, trade, which has caused massive interactions with all kinds of people, both nationally and internationally. Managing diversity can be described as understanding, acknowledging, valuing and celebrating these differences between people.
Diversity provides the greatest potential for creating value. This is because people have different ideas and views on what they notice; how they construe it, what they decide to do about it, and how they execute our ideas. Multicultural teams, therefore, can be said to have massive ideas that generate innovations. Having diverse employees in the organization enables them to come up with different ideas and different ways of doing things within an organization. This promotes creative thinking and leads to developing the best strategies in the organization.
Having diverse employees in a multicultural environment promotes valuable decision making. Employees have different ways of thinking as well as that of doing things. A range of ideas and possible solutions to certain problems are presented and, then, the solutions are analyzed to come up with the best decision. As Micheal De Montaigne said, “there’re never in the world two opinions alike, the most universal quality is diversity” (Schein 2010).
Due to massive interactions, the world is becoming a global village. Multicultural environment promotes interactions with people from every corner of the universe. This promotes trade all over the world between nations and multinationals. Dealing with diverse employees facilitates international and multinational trade, as they come in handy during challenges like language barriers and acceptable cultural practices in certain nations, which the organization may not be aware of.
Globalization in today’s world has brought about stiff competition among different companies since there is production of similar products and each is striving to become the best. Employee diversity can be said to bring in competitive advantage in the company. This is because there is sharing of different ideas and there is a rich text of possible strategies that the company should take. Employee diversity can, however, be a rich organizational asset.
E-commerce brings people together as people are able to interact with each other online all over the world. This is a good example of a system that manages diversity as it does not choose who to carry out business with or who to interact with.
Impact of managerial ethics, CSR, and sustainable development
Today, ethics is an important aspect in every business in the world. The organizations’ management are supposed to practice ethics in their dealings. Managerial ethics promotes trustworthiness, good behaviours openness in an organization. The managers are able to set a good example to employees. Modern organizations today have come up with a code of ethics, whose purpose is to guide the employees on acceptable behaviour in the organization. Good ethical standards promote the culture of the organization and create a strong organizational culture and structure. Unlike in companies that do not have a code of ethics, the managers as well as the people do and behave as they like, as there are no rules, governing their behaviour. This brings about mistrust between the management and the employees and also among the employees. It is a basis for bad behaviour, including theft, hatred, discrimination, etc. (Ferell 2012).
The public image of the company is as important as the success of the business. Corporate social responsibility means balancing the interests of the society with that of the organization. The society needs to feel and see the positive impact of the organization in the society at large. In modern companies, it is important to consider the interests of the society before starting your business. It is from the society that one gets customers and employees as well. An organization that does not practice corporate social responsibility is due to fail because it has no customers and the public is not supportive in the company. The society has to feel that they are needed in and by the organization. Web analytic information helps organization establish suitable policies and actions that help in the formulation of good corporate governance.
Due to the rapid changing technology, an organization has to frequently update its systems for it to be productive. An organization has to have the best and latest technologies to be able to perform effectively and productively. Not only technology, but also an organization has to keep up with the changing lifestyles of the people to be able to provide the best products and services. An organization that does not keep up with the changing times is due to fail and loose to the stiff competition around the world.
Decision making is essential in our day to day lives. Good decision making techniques involve identifying the problem, analysing any given solution and choosing the best solution to the problem. For example, for a company with annual losses, it is critical for them to come up with reasons why there are no profits, recorded in the year. It may be that the organization has faulty management or uses out dated technologies in their operations. The management would have to come up to a conclusion on whether to deploy new management or upgrade their systems (Mullen 2002).
An organization is said to be as good as its leaders. Good leadership involves commitment, integrity, good communication skills, etc. A good leader pushes the followers to achieve more. For example, a company that has a leader who motivates, rewards, and involves them in the organizations activities will yield successful business. A strong organizational structure and culture is one that is accepted by all the people. Globalization has seen organizations bring people of different ages and cultures together and this helps the organizations form strong cultures and structure through sharing of experiences, ideas and personalities.
An effective team is one, in which the people in it are committed to the work they do and they are able to work together to complete a task. For a team to be effective, the people in it must be able to understand each other, share ideas and work towards the achievement of a certain goal. Today’s business world is changing drastically, where team work is emphasized. In organizations, work is assigned to teams, rather than to individuals. This is advantageous since certain tasks can be completed in time and also allows for sharing of ideas, which facilitates achievement of better results. Businesses want to hire individuals who are team players, rather than those who concentrate on their own personal interests. Planning is a crucial process in every organization.
It involves analyzing every situation in the organization and coming up with the best practices or solutions to certain problems. A good manager must be able to plan their work accordingly for the success of the business. Leadership principles entail the ability of the leaders to exert influence on the followers and lead the organization towards the achievement of the company’s goals. Good leadership acts as a source of motivation to all the workers in the company and enhances productivity.
E-commerce is an important system in business today. It enables one to form interactions with people from various countries and locations all over the world, therefore, promoting globalization. Web analytics is useful in getting information through the impact the website has to the user, the organization can access their managerial, technological and organizational performance.
Globalization today has brought emphasis of good managerial, technological and organizational expertise due to the high rate of competition that is caused by interactions with different personnel. Embracing the concept of E-commerce is important for the evolvement of a better tomorrow since this system has simplified businesses through reducing the costs, involved in carrying out businesses, travelling costs and reduced labour force unlike the ancient times, where people had to travel; this was very costly not only to the individual but also the business itself is at a greater risk.
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