Person-in-Environment Case Analysis

Children undergo various developmental stages that are characterized by different features and characteristics. Thus, these features include biological, psychological, neurobiological, and social development factors, with all of them being important for the development of all children. It is necessary to have a proper understanding of the development stages as well as the behaviors associated with them to provide care to children properly. The use of theories, such as the three dynamics system theory and the ecological (social) one, is important in the understanding of various stages of development and the behaviors that children show since they allow comprehending why they show such behaviours during their development stages.

Major Biological, Neurobiological, Psychological, Social, and Developmental Factors to Consider in the Case

Each situation in a persons life can be analyzed from a different perspective. Anyone with individual cognitive and psychological characteristics, who lives in a specific socio-cultural environment, can be analyzed from the perspective of biology, psychology, and sociology correspondently. One of the psychological factors, in this case, is that Emma is a victim of sexual harassment and abuse in the kindergarten. At the same time, a prominent social development factors of this case is that the girl experiences problems with communication with her parents and peers.

As it can be seen, various factors are important for consideration. Moreover, one must apply a suitable theory for the explanation of Emmas behavior from the perspective of different scientific spheres. Thus, Emmas characteristics, when she was a newborn, would be important regarding the description of her behaviour development within the theory of perinatal matrices by Grof. Specifically, Grof (2016) contends that the prenatal development of every child corresponds to their psycho. Since Emma is born full-term, it is fair to conclude from both biological and neurobiological perspectives that she has a fully developed psycho. From a social development perspective, one should pay attention to Emmas relations with her mother and father since they can help understand the reasons for her naughty and baby-like behavior, which has been mentioned in the case description. Thus, lack of attention from the fathers side can cause Emmas bad attitude towards her mother and peers (Grof, 2016). From a psychological perspective, it is also extremely important to consider the fact that Emma has been raped in order to indicate her psychological mechanism of protection as well as to explain and predict her behavior in the response to any attempt to force her to do something she does not like.

From the biological and neurobiological point of view, it would be fair to claim that Emma underwent a full cycle of development of psycho in the mothers womb. She came through four prenatal matrixes, accompanied with the development of corresponding qualities (Grof, 2016). However, since there is no information about how desirable the child has been, it is hard to make a definite conclusion on the actual notion of love, freedom, bravery, and patience. The additional interview should be held with Emmas mother to clarify this question. This should be considered a shortcut of the theory regarding the application of this case.

Girls are likely to develop the Electra complex when they realize themselves as individuals and separate themselves from the outside world. Usually, it happens at the age of five. The child calls herself I instead of calling herself by her name. Initially, the girl is attached to her father and mother similarly, but later, she develops a special affection to her father, which is an important social development factor to be considered. At the age of five-six years old, the girl dreams to marry the father when she is grown. Some experts believe that a woman, who idealizes his father since childhood by exaggerating his dignity, develops the so-called Electra complex. Other psychological and social development factors worthy of consideration concern the stress that Emma has experienced due to the harassment, caused a responsive reaction and being turned on. The role of mechanisms of psychological protection of the individual lies in the fact that they unknowingly protect her from emotional and negative overload. People rarely use any single mechanism of protection as they usually use various protective mechanisms to resolve a conflict or alleviate anxiety.

The Application of the Concepts of Dynamic Systems Theory

Dynamic systems theory is a type of motor development theory that can help to understand children with cerebral palsy better. Thus, various concepts, which should be used to understand Emmas case, include the readiness to acquire new motor abilities, the evolution of phenomena over time, and changes due to interactions among units.

Readiness to Acquire New Motor Abilities

One of the concepts of dynamic systems theory is that it is essential in providing insights into the readiness of children to acquire and develop new motor abilities. In Emmas case, this theory can be used to assess her readiness for the acquisition and development of new learning abilities. According to Runcan, Rat?a?, and Cojocaru (2013), the ability of children to perform movements is essential as it helps them interact with others and develop superior learning capabilities. Therefore, dynamic systems theory can be used to provide interventions to children like Emma who have motor and learning challenges.

Evolution of Phenomena over Time

The second concepts of dynamic systems theory to be used in Emmas case concerns how phenomena usually evolve or change over time. In this case, the dynamic systems approach can be applied to understand how Emmas emotions change over time instead of focusing on whether she is sad or happy on any particular day. This concept can help understand the patterns of changes in Emma that are reoccurring, ever-changing, or even constant. For example, the concept of the evolution of phenomena over time can be used to understand why Emma constantly throws tantrums, being aggressive and throwing things when frustrated or hungry. These behaviors are associated with her emotions, and as such, they evolve instead of occurring only sometimes. Therefore, dynamic systems theory can be used to understand the circumstances, under which these negative emotions occur and why they are likely to do so.

Changes due to Interactions Among Units

The third concept of dynamic systems theory concerns changes that happen from interactions among different units such as individuals, aspects of individuals, or groups. In this case, for example, the concept can be used to understand why, despite being described as kind and pleasant, Emma becomes easily agitated when playing or working with her classmates. Thus, dynamic systems theory would consider the differing emotions between Emma and her classmates, and it is assumed that these interactions are multi-directional (Runcan et al., 2013). The implication of this notion is that classmates usually have influence on each other in such a way that they would limit the emotions of one another (Berzoff, Flanagan, & Hertz, 2016). Consequently, these mutual influences may have forced the classmates, in this case, Emmas, to generate complicated emotional patterns in time.

Limitations and Strengths of the Theory

One of the limitations of dynamic theory is that it is often referred to as a meta-theoretical perspective since it can be applied to almost any phenomenon. This fact has led to many scholars considering it not a theory at all but rather a descriptive tool (Berzoff et al., 2016). However, this does not make the theory useless. Therefore, this is inherently an interdisciplinary concept that can be found in such divers fields as architecture, biology, psychology, and physics as well as in the process share tools, concepts, and language.

The Application of Three Ecological Concepts

Ecological systems theory is also one of the most important theories that can be used to comprehend Emmas situation. According to this theory, it is important to understand how the development of a child, such as Emma, is affected by her social relations as well as the world around her. Bronfenbrenner, the creator of this theory, believed that an individuals development could be affected by nearly everything in their surrounding environment. To understand how this theory can be used to diagnose Emma, one should obtain the understanding of such concepts as mesosystem microsystem, macro-system, chrono-system, and ecosystem that are different major levels of an individuals environment.


Microsystemdescribes the immediate, or the closest, system to an individual and the one, in which they can directly contact. In the case of Emma, her micro system is the school and home, where she can have direct contacts with her classmates and mother respectively. Microsystems usually include caregivers, peers, or family. The types of relations found within them are known as bi-directional, which means that an individuals relationship with others in microsystem will determine how other members within this system will treat them in return. Consequently, the way Emma interacts with her schoolmates will determine how they will interact with her (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2012) in return. At the same time, her regular interactions and contacts with her mother will determine how the latter perceives and treats her daughter in return.


Mesosystem is the second concept of ecological systems theory that one can apply in Emmas case. According to Duncan, Rat?a?, and Cojocaru (2013), mesosystem is the next level after microsystem, and it involves the interactions between different parts of an individuals microsystem (Robbins et al., 2012). Moreover, it designates the systems where the discrete microsystems of a person cease to purpose self-sufficiently but they are unified in such a way that they stress influence over each other. One should remember that these interactions assert indirect impacts on each other and the individual (Runcan et al., 2013). In Emmas case, for example, the relationship between her mother and her teacher influences her indirectly. At the same time, the relationship between her parents and their pastor may only affect her indirectly. The failure of her father to participate actively in school life may have affected Emmas academic progress.


The third concept of the theory is exosystem, and it describes a setting that does not involve Emma as an active participant but that still affects her. These may include decisions that have a bearing on the person, but in which they are not involved regarding decision-making or participation. Thus, the decision by Emmas parents to divorce has a bearing on her, but she is not involved in it as an active participant or a decision-maker (Berzoff, Flanagan, & Hertz, 2011). Such a situation may impact Emma, and she may become anxious when her parents finally separate. Therefore, the outcome might have an impact on her development both socially and academically.

Strengths and Limitations of the Theory

One of the strengths of ecological theory is that it puts into perspective the fact that living things have a natural environment rather than an artificial isolation. As such, it can describe the interconnections as well as interactions that are important in understanding the lives of organisms in their entirety (Berzoff et al., 2011). Nevertheless, this theory has some weaknesses. One of them is that it tends to diffuse. Although the theory does well at exposing various development stages in different environments, it fails to provide the reasons why certain behaviors are manifested.

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Dynamics system theory, as well as the ecological (social) theory, is among the most important psychological theories which can be used to understand children during different phases of their development. The development of children is affected by a myriad of factors including the social development, psychological, neuropsychological, and biological ones. Thus, dynamic systems theory is important because it explains why children show certain behaviors during their development. The importance of ecological systems theory lies in the fact that it explains the factors in the environment that may influence the development of children.

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