Coral reefs are the richest biodiversity around the world. They are very important to both the people and environment in several ways. Coral reefs usually protect the shores from the storms and waves impacts. They also provide medicine and food to human beings. Coral reefs are very important in terms of economic benefits to the local community in terms of tourism. Over 20 percent of coral reefs have been destroyed of late; there are still no signs of the destroyed coral reef recovering soon. There are reports that around 24 percent of the world reefs are at a risk of collapsing due to human pressures. The marine biodiversity all around the world continue to face threats mainly because of overfishing that is taking place in the marine or oceans. There are also a lot of inland pollution that is taking place in many coastal regions mainly from industries and oil spills; these are some of the main threat facing coral reefs globally. Massive developments around the coastal regions, global climate change and acidification of the ocean due to carbon dioxide absorption by the ocean, are also other great threats to the coral reefs (Hunter, 1996).
There are several threats due to global changes include coral bleaching, rising levels of carbon dioxide and disease, plagues and invasive. Coral bleaching and mortality which is associated global climate change is a major threat to the coral reefs. Climate change is likely to cause increased coral bleaching as well as change and disappearance of the ocean bio-diversity if not controlled.
Massive extinction that is being caused by human activities is making the biodiversity to decline; this is mainly in terms of medicines that are being gotten from plants. They are becoming endangered each and every day. The extinction rate is increasing at a very high rate and if this continues, around two-thirds of animals, plants and other organisms will be vanished by the last part of the next century. There has been substantial irreversible loss of biodiversity life on earth. There are around 10-30 percent of the mammals, amphibians’ species and birds being threatened by extinction, this is mainly due to human activities. There are reports showing that, over a third of vertebrate species has declined within 33 years from 1970 to 2003. The demand from people for the natural world has increased so much that, the world is being unable to regenerate in the same pace. In addition, over 75 percent of agricultural crops genetic diversity has been lost. In world fisheries, over 75 percent of them have been over exploited. If the global temperatures would rise by 3.5 degrees, over 70 percent of world species will risk extinction. It is also believed that, rain forest continues to disappear in every second. It is believed that around 350 million people continue to suffer from water scarcity due to destruction of bio-diversity. There are lots of agricultural problems that are threatening the food supply to a lot of people due to declining biodiversity (Kevin & John, 2004).